regarding the use of accumulated histograms and whether they are useful, I think it is good to see the case of network data plane benchmarking as it has been done in the last 2 decades. Traditionally, the industry has been using very expensive hardware traffic generators (that use specialized network cards) to generate traffic at very high rate and count things like how many packets were dropped and how long it took them to come back. Because of the very high rate, up to the level of 100M packets/sec, the only way to count packets sent and received precisely is to start at given time all streams, then stop at same time, wait for all packets to return then count the received packets, which will get the precise drop. In flight counting of packets will never be accurate. Warm up period is of course always done but as part of a separate run right before the real run (for the reason cited above, you can't warm up as part of the real run because of exact counting issues). So this notion of getting stats for the entire run (say 10Mpps for an hour) made sense, after the hour you'd get exact packet stats and exact latency histogram. The need for interval reporting happened later because folks did not want to wait for an hour to see that they were dropping too many packets (or having latency through the roof), hence the acceptance of having approximate results e.g. every 30 second.