@remram44 no, they are the same object. The only difference is in the startup process, which changes the the connection direction. However, IPython.parallel relies on a couple of messages added to the message specification that are not language agnostic. For this reason, IPython.parallel is really an IPython project, and not a Jupyter project, where we have moved the language agnostic pieces of IPython. There are no plans to bring support for other kernels to IPython.parallel, because that would require language-agnostic function and object serialization, which cannot be done in a reasonably efficient way (most people end up at JSON, which only works for trivial cases).